Addiction could stem from ancient retrovirus, study suggests

Addiction could stem from ancient retrovirus, study suggests

Traces of ancient retrovirus infections can be found all over the human genome. In the case of the HK2 retrovirus, traces can be found in only 5% to 10% of the world's population, which means that the virus is quite recent. And in a separate part of the study conducted in the United Kingdom, 184 hepatitis C patients were 3.6 times more likely to have RASGRF2 in their genes if they had suffered chronic drug abuse than those who had not.

Researchers from the Oxford University and University of Athens set out to establish how HK2 manipulated nearby genes and what role that may play in addictive behaviors. Retroviruses can either spread exogenously between individuals, like HIV, or endogenously from parents to offspring, but they were not previously believed to be harmful in humans. Their study provides strong evidence that uncommon HK2 integrations can be responsible for the unappreciated pathogenic burden of addictive behaviors. Only one of these, HERV-K HML-2 or HK2, probably continues to multiply among humans today, although not all people have the same HK2 in their DNA. "This particular integration is inside a gene known as RASGRF2, which is involved in dopamine response".

While we all have ancient viruses that date back to our primate ancestors, they are not thought to be factors that can determine a person character thousands of years later.

But the results stopped short of proving that viruses can change our behavior or make us more prone to addiction, he said.

"Human endogenous retroviruses comprise 8% of the genome and have not been linked with human disease until now", Magiorkinis said.

Will Bradley Cooper Prove Eddie Vedder Wrong With A Star Is Born
The film stars Cooper plays Jackson Maine, who discovers - and falls in love with - struggling artist Ally ( Gaga ). She has just about given up on her dream to make it big as a singer... until Jack coaxes her into the spotlight.

World Bank report warns Gaza Strip economy is in 'free fall'
The report also warned about conditions in the West Bank, which is governed by the Palestinian Authority. An Israeli warplane on Saturday struck the northern Gaza Strip but apparently caused no casualties.

Russian Federation to upgrade Syrian air defences
The Russian IL-20 surveillance plane crashed near Latakia in northern Syria . "If they are used against us, we will act against them".

Professor Katzourakis, from the University of Oxford, said, 'Our study shows for the first time that rare variants of HK2 can affect a complex human trait'. "The replication of this finding in the distinct Athens and Glasgow cohorts is particularly important". Now we have strong proof that HERVs can be pathogenic. "For the first time, we are able to make a distinction between cause and effect in HERV pathogenicity".

This is the third time they have been strongly linked with a harmful effect in humans, after the discoveries of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the human T-lymphotropic virus (HTLV), according to the researchers.

And the researchers said that studying the rarely analyzed, "dark" part of the genome that they looked at "will unlock more genomic secrets". The researchers do not rule out that certain variants of the HK2 virus are still infectious for humans.

Further research into this area could eventually result in pharmacological targets for drug development and lead to medical-pharmacological interventions for addicts.

Related Articles

  • Xiaomi launches the Mi Band 3 in India for ₹1,999 ($28)

    Xiaomi launches the Mi Band 3 in India for ₹1,999 ($28)

    Right off the bat, the Mi Band 3 has a bigger display of 0.78-inch as opposed to the 0.42-inch OLED screen we saw on the Mi Band. The company has priced the wearable at Rs 1,999, and it will be available via Amazon India , and mi.com starting tomorrow.
    First Look at Tom Hanks as Mr. Rogers in New Film

    First Look at Tom Hanks as Mr. Rogers in New Film

    Sony announced the Fred Rogers movie, You are My Friend , in January, and it's scheduled to come out in October 2019. It's a handsome day in the neighborhood for Tom Hanks .
    'Major terrorist attack' foiled in Netherlands, seven arrested

    'Major terrorist attack' foiled in Netherlands, seven arrested

    Prosecutors say they were allegedly seeking firearms training and were arrested in possession of five small handguns. Earlier this month an Islamic terrorist was shot by Dutch police after stabbing two American tourists in Amsterdam.
  • Grassley snaps at staffer at Kavanaugh hearing: 'Speak plainly with me, please'

    Grassley snaps at staffer at Kavanaugh hearing: 'Speak plainly with me, please'

    Ford's accusations prompted a second woman to come forward with an accusation of inappropriate sexual behavior against Kavanaugh. She supervises attorneys who handle cases involving child molestation, sexual assault and computer crimes against children.
    Karan Johars magnum opus stars SRK, Aamir, Ranveer and Deepika

    Karan Johars magnum opus stars SRK, Aamir, Ranveer and Deepika

    Karan Johar, in the wee hours of Thursday shared a picture on his Instagram handle which has left us star-struck. Meanwhile, Aamir Khan's " Thugs of Hindostan " will be hitting cinemas in November.
    Seal slaps kayaker with octopus

    Seal slaps kayaker with octopus

    A kayaker was slapped in the face by a seal with an octopus while on an excursion in New Zealand . The seal threw the octopus into the air, smacking Mulinder square in the face.
  • Justin Milne 'never sent' email calling for journalists' sacking

    Justin Milne 'never sent' email calling for journalists' sacking

    Milne came under fire due to this week's sensational sacking of Guthrie, just halfway through her five-year-long contract. She was criticized for her management style and told that her relationships with government "could have been better".
    'America's Got Talent': Everything to Know About Michael Ketterer's Domestic Violence Arrest

    'America's Got Talent': Everything to Know About Michael Ketterer's Domestic Violence Arrest

    It was Michael's performance of "Ain't No Mountain High Enough" that became of interest to Garth Brooks . Brooks delivered, penning a ballad entitled "The Courage to Love" for the Knoxville native.
    7-Year-Old Stuns The Internet With Her National Anthem

    7-Year-Old Stuns The Internet With Her National Anthem

    Following her knockout performance, social media erupted with praise and disbelief over the second-grader's natural talent. In July, the Los Angeles native was in a Hollywood Bowl production of Annie as Molly, the protagonist's best friend.
  • Andy Murray faces a stern test

    Andy Murray faces a stern test

    Murray draws Shanghai's own Zhang Zhizhen (ranked 340th in men's single's) in the first round of the Shenzhen Open on Tuesday. She next faces Olympic gold medalist Monica Puig from Puerto Rico, who beat Aliaksandra Sasnovich 6-2, 6-2.
    Panthers acquire OT Marshall Newhouse in trade with Bills

    Panthers acquire OT Marshall Newhouse in trade with Bills

    Carolina will send Buffalo a future conditional draft pick in exchange for the 6-4, 330 pound Newhouse. According to a report, they have acquired offensive tackle Marshall Newhouse from the Buffalo Bills.
    Venezuela's Maduro heads to New York, Trump says open to meeting

    Venezuela's Maduro heads to New York, Trump says open to meeting

    Trump, who withdrew from the agreement, promised that USA sanctions would be "fully" in force in early November. "So true", Mr. For 240 years, explained Zoellick, "America's leaders believed the two ideas were mutually reinforcing, not in conflict".